3D Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

Contact Person(s):
Dr. Maria Farsari Prof. Anna Mitraki

We use nonlinear lithography to structure novel biocompatible and/or biodegradable materials. The 3D structures can be used as scaffolds for the growth of new tissue.

Research Topics
Non-linear Lithography


A matter of considerable research interest recently is the creation and structuring of biocompatible materials to enable the integration of living cells. The choice of the scaffold for cell cultivation can greatly influence the attachment, migration, and proliferation of cells. Scaffold materials that are not rejected by the body upon implantation can be selected from metals, ceramics, synthetic polymers, and biopolymers.

Micron-sized topography has been shown to play an essential role in determining cell adhesion and surface-bound characteristics influence in this way prominent cellular functions such as survival, proliferation, differentiation, migration, or mediator release. In particular, 3-dimensional (3D) cell cultures offer a more realistic micro- and local-environment where the functional properties of cells can be observed and manipulated. An important factor in the production of working tissue engineering scaffolds is the ability of a reproducible and controlled method of nanostructuring. A versatile class of scaffold production techniques which enable the fabrication of tailored structures directly from a computer data via Computer Aided Design / Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) are solid-free-form fabrication techniques. 3D laser nonlinear lithography has been demonstrated as a technology for the fabrication of 3D structures with high resolution capabilities.
We are investigating two different approaches to the fabrication of 3D scaffolds using nonlinear lithography. The first is the fabrication of biodegradable 3D scaffolds, which can be used for the growth of soft tissue. The second is the fabrication of permanent 3D scaffolds, for the growth of bone tissue. In this case, to assist cell growth, we are investigating the surface functionalization of these scaffolds with biomolecules such as amyloid peptides. One such structure is shown in the picture below, where a 3D structure has been fabricated using nonlinear lithography and has subsequently been functionalized with self-assembled amyloid peptide fibers.


  • 2D and 3D biotin patterning by ultrafast lasers
    V. Dinca, J. Catherine, A. Mourka, S. Georgiou, M. Farsari and C. Fotakis, International Journal of Nanotechnology, 6, 88, 2009

  • Materials Processing: Two-photon fabrication
    M. Farsari, B.N. Chichkov, Nature Photonics, 3, 450, 2009

  • Laser-based micro/nanoengineering for biological applications
    E. Stratakis, A. Ranella, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, Progress in Quantum Electronics, 33, 127, 2009

  • Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization
    F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, Langmuir , 25, 3219, 2009

  • Directed Three-Dimensional Patterning of Self-Assembled Peptide Fibrils
    V. Dinca, E. Kasotakis, J. Catherine, A. Mourka, A. Ranella, A. Ovsianikov, B.N. Chichkov, M. Farsari, A. Mitraki and C. Fotakis, Nanoletters , 8, 538, 2008

  • Construction of 2D and 3D Biomolecules Structures Using fs Lasers
    M. Farsari, V. Dinca, M. Dinescu, S. Georgiou, C. Fotakis, International Journal of Nanomanufacturing, 1, 762, 2008

  • Applications of ultrafast lasers in materials processing: Fabrication on self-cleaning surfaces and scaffolds for tissue engineering
    C. Fotakis, M. Barberoglou, V. Zorba, E. Stratakis, E. L. Papadopoulou, A. Ranella, K. Terzaki, and M. Farsari, Proceedings of SPIE, Laser Physics and Applications 2008, 2008

  • Three-dimensional biomolecule patterning
    M. Farsari, G. Filippidis, T.S. Drakakis, K. Sambani, S. Georgiou, G. Papadakis, E. Gizeli, C. Fotakis, Applied Surface Science, 253, 8115, 2007

  • Novel Aspects of Materials Processing by Ultrafast Lasers: From Electronic to Biological and Cultural Heritage Applications
    C. Fotakis, V. Zorba, E. Stratakis, P. Tzanetakis, I. Zergioti, D. G. Papagoglou, K. Sambani, G. Filippidis, M. Farsari, P. Pouli, G. Bounos, S. Georgiou, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 59, 266, 2007

  • 2D and 3D printing of biomolecules employing femtosecond lasers
    M. Farsari, V. Dinca, M. Dinescu, T. S. Drakakis, and C. Fotakis, Proceedings of SPIE, Advanced Laser Technologies 2006 2007, 2007

  • Construction of three-dimensional biomolecule structures employing femtosecond lasers
    T.S. Drakakis, G. Papadakis, K. Sambani, G. Filippidis, S. Georgiou, E. Gizeli, C. Fotakis and M. Farsari, Applied Physics Letters, 89, 144108, 2006

  • Construction of three-dimensional biomolecule structures employing femtosecond lasers
    Theodore S. Drakakis, George Papadakis, Kyriaki Sambani, George Filippidis, Savas Georgiou, Electra Gizeli, Costas Fotakis, and Maria Farsari, Applied Physics Letters, 89,144108, 2006

Project Members
Dr. Maria Farsari
Prof. Anna Mitraki
Prof. Costas Fotakis
Prof. Maria Vamvakaki
Dr. Anthi Ranella
Mr. Stylianos Psycharakis
Ms. Konstantina Terzaki

Last Updated:  15/10/2009