Research is focused on the implementation of laser based micro- and nano-processing methodologies for the engineering of 3-dimensional (3D) biomaterials or materials relevant to tissue engineering applications. The principal objective is to investigate the potential use of the fabricated structures as scaffolds for tissue regeneration. The techniques deployed include two-Photon Polymerization (2PP), Ultrafast Laser Micro and Nano Structuring (ULMNS), single pulse UV Laser Irradiation of Biopolymer (UVLIB) and Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT). Combinations of the 3D scaffolds obtained with well-defined biodegradable nanostructures in a “scaffold on scaffold” format are additionally investigated. The influence of the topographical features of the fabricated scaffolds on cell behaviour, related to viability, proliferation, motility, adhesion, morphology, cytoskeletal arrangement and gene expression, is examined. Furthermore in each case, control over the topography and surface chemistry of the prepared structures is demonstrated which allows further study of cell response and its dependence on the surface energy of the scaffold. The aforementioned studies on the bioactivity of the fabricated scaffolds were performed by culturing various types of cell lines as well as primary neurons and stem cells. The ultimate goal of the research team is to examine potential medical and/or clinical applications of optimized artificial tissue scaffolds.